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Thorp, E.O. "The Mathematics of Gambling," Copyright © 1984. COPYRIGHT NOTICE: "The Mathematics of Gambling" is posted by permission of Dr. Edward Thorp. It can only be downloaded for single copy individual use (plus "short" quotes in published works with Dr. Thorp's prior approval).
Feature Articles
Baldwin, Roger; Cantey, Wilbert; Maisel, Herbert; and McDermott, James "The Optimum Strategy In Blackjack," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol 51, 429 - 439 (1956) [pdf format; 1.1M]
Breiman, L., "Optimal Gambling Systems For Favorable Games," Jorzy Noyman, Proceedings of the Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. Four Symposia. Copyright 1951-1956. Regents of the University of California, 1, 65-78, 1961. [pdf format; 1.4M]
Bill C. and Marc Ingenoso "Risk Formulas For Proportional Betting." [.pdf file]
Ethier, S.N. and Tavere, S., "The Proportional Bettor's Return on Investment," Journal of Applied Probability, Vol 20, 563-573, 1983. [pdf format; 510k]
Gottleib, Gary, "An Optimal Betting Strategy For Repeated Games," Journal of Applied Probability, Vol 22, 787-795, 1985. [pdf format; 339k]
Grosjean, James and Mankodi, Previn "42.08%: More on the Ace in Hand ..." [.pdf file 850K]
Heath, David, "Algorithms For Computations of Blackjack Strategies," 1973. Paper presented at the Second Conference on Gambling, sponsored by the University of Nevada, 1975 [pdf format; 670k]
Kelly, J.L. Jr. "A New Interpretation of Information Rate," Bell Systems Technical Journal, 35, (1956), 917-926 [pdf format; 101k]
Sileo, Patrick "The Evaluation of Blackjack Games Using a Combined Expectation and Risk Measure," Eadington, W.R. and Cornelius, J.A., eds. (1992). Gambling and Commercial Gaming: Essays in Business, Economics, Philosophy and Science. Reno: Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno, www.unr.edu/gaming [pdf format; 460k]
Thorp, E.O. , and Walden, W. E. "The Fundamental Theorem of Card Counting with Applications to Trente-et-Quarante and Baccarat," International Journal of Game Theory, Physica-Verlag, Volume 2, Issue 2, 1973. [pdf format, 631K]
Thorp, E.O. "The Kelly Criterion in Blackjack, Sports Betting, and the Stock Market," Paper presented at: The 10th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Montreal, June 1997; revised May 29, 1998
Wong, Stanford "What Proportional Betting Does to Your Win Rate," Paper presented at the fifth National Gambling Conference. [html format]
(Note: For papers saved in .pdf format, you need to download, and install on your computer, Adobe's free Acrobat Reader 3.0 program to view and print the PDF file. See the Adobe Acrobat site for details. )

Cetinkaya, S. and M. Parlar "Optimal Non-Myopic Gambling Strategy for the Generalized Kelly Criterion," Naval Research Logistics, Vol. 44, pp: 639--654, 1997.